The unitary state of Turkey was founded in 1923 and with an area of 783,562 square kilometers, it is situated on two continents: for the most part it is in the Near East and only 3% percent of the national territory is located in South-Eastern Europe. The Turkish coasts are bordered by the Aegean Sea in the west, by the Mediterranean Sea in the south and by the Black Sea in the north. The country also borders on 8 different neighboring countries: in the north it borders Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan; in the east it borders Iran and in the south Syria and Iraq.
Turkey is characterized by a variety of landscapes: the European western part is covered with forests and high hills; there is also intensive agriculture and the metropolis of Istanbul. In the north there are forested mountains with fertile soil in which tea, tobacco, corn and hazelnuts are grown. Central Turkey has plateaus, high mountain ranges and dry steppe landscapes where grains and fruit are grown. In eastern Turkey, there is a high mountain landscape with the highest peaks in the country, such as Mount Ararat. This is also the oldest cultural region of Turkey in which, for example, the two rivers of Euphrates and Tigris run. Agriculturally, this land is used to cultivate grains, vineyards, olives and pistachios.